On Tuesday December 4th Ambassador Thomas Graham discussed the past, present and future of nuclear arms control and related topics. Ambassador Graham began his presentation with a proliferation anecdote that most people are still unaware of. He explained that in the 1960s, at the height of the Cold War, the biggest fear of the Kennedy administration was the probability of having at least 20 nuclear-armed countries by the 1980s. As Ambassador Graham explained, this worldview made perfect sense for a president that had lived through the Cuban Missile Crisis, yet as we know now, this future never materialized. What did materialized were multiple non-proliferation regimes that compelled the superpowers and other nuclear-armed states to restrict the size of their arsenals and curtail the spread of nuclear weapon technology. Ultimately, as Ambassador Graham asserted, nations learned to negotiate and turn nuclear reduction into a “work-in-progress” as opposed to a “winner-takes-all” equation. Commenting on recent developments, Ambassador Graham pivoted to nuclear issues in the Middle East. Ambassador Graham stated that while he did not expect Iran to pursue a nuclear weapon, he believes that the United States would have to negotiate with Iran and learn to accept a nuclear capable Iran, although not a nuclear-armed Iran. Continuing on the topic of the Middle East, Ambassador Graham explained that the United States needs to ratify the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 2013 and thereby encourage other non-ratifiers to make the same decision. Ambassador Graham clearly outlined a sequence in which the United States would ratify the CTBT leading to Israeli and Chinese ratification, with the former’s ratification most likely prompting Egyptian and Iranian ratification. Lastly, Ambassador Graham spoke on the future of nuclear energy and its importance to combating climate change. Ambassador Graham discussed new technologies such as thorium fuel blends which would be immune to proliferation and safer than current uranium and plutonium technologies. Ambassador Graham rounded out his presentation answering questions relating to the START treaties, Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, and how the Arab Spring has affected Israeli nuclear policy.