The Iran nuclear deal, formally known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), was a landmark agreement reached in 2015 between Iran and several world powers, including the United States, China, Russia, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the European Union [1]. The agreement aimed to limit Iran’s nuclear program in exchange for lifting economic sanctions.

Under the deal, Iran agreed to significantly reduce its uranium enrichment capabilities, dismantle a significant portion of its centrifuges, and allow international inspectors to monitor its nuclear facilities [2]. In return, economic sanctions imposed by the UN, US, and EU were lifted, allowing Iran to sell crude oil again on the international market [2].

However, in 2018, the United States withdrew from the agreement under the Trump administration and reimposed economic sanctions on Iran [1]. In response, Iran began violating some of the deal’s limits on its nuclear program, including increasing its uranium enrichment levels and using more advanced centrifuges [6]. The other parties to the deal attempted to salvage it, but their efforts were unsuccessful.

As of March 2023, the future of the Iran nuclear deal remains uncertain. Iran has resumed producing uranium enriched to 20% and 60%, which are considered weapons-grade levels [10]. Meanwhile, the United States and other countries have signalled their willingness to re-engage in negotiations with Iran to revive the deal, but progress has been slow [8].

The Iran Nuclear Deal

Impact of the Deal

The Iran nuclear deal was a significant achievement in international diplomacy, and it had the potential to significantly reduce tensions between Iran and the international community. The agreement was widely seen as a positive step towards global nonproliferation efforts and a model for future nuclear agreements [1].

However, the withdrawal of the United States from the deal and the subsequent sanctions on Iran have led to increased tensions between the two countries and raised concerns about Iran’s nuclear ambitions. The failure to salvage the deal has also highlighted the challenges of negotiating complex international agreements and the importance of maintaining diplomatic relationships with other countries [3].


The Iran nuclear deal was a significant agreement aimed at limiting Iran’s nuclear program in exchange for the lifting of economic sanctions. However, the United States’ withdrawal from the deal and subsequent sanctions on Iran have raised concerns about Iran’s nuclear ambitions and increased tensions between the two countries. The future of the deal remains uncertain, but many hope that negotiations can resume and the agreement can be salvaged [4].